US Army Fact Sheet on Xylitol:
Xylitol the Army Facts
Ice Breakers gum has
The use of sorbitol- and
xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control - J Am Dent Assoc,
Vol 137, No 2, 190-196.
The author compared the caries-inhibitory
action of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum and assessed the
role of these products in caries prevention. The author reviewed studies
includingrandomized field trials with substantial numbers of
participants and observational studies. He found studies through a
MEDLINE search and by hand searching. When compared with sugar-sweetened
gum, sorbitol-sweetened gum had low carcinogenicity when it was chewed
no more than three times per day. Xylitol-sweetened gum was
noncariogenic in all of the
protocols tested. Some studies claimed that xylitol-sweetened gum had an
anticariogenic effect, though these claims need further study. There
also is good evidence that when mothers of infants and young
children chew xylitol-sweetened gum, it will block transmission of
mutans streptococci from mother to child.
The evidence is strong enough to support the regular use of
xylitol-sweetened gum as a way to prevent caries, andit can be promoted
as a public-health preventive measure. Chewing xylitol-sweetened gum,
especially for patients who like chewing gum, can be fitted readily into
a regimen that includes frequent fluoride
exposure, good oral hygiene and regular dental appointments. 4/06
promoted in caries-preventive strategies, yet its effective dose range
is unclear. This study determined the dose- response of mutans
streptococci in plaque and unstimulated saliva to xylitol gum.
Participants (n = 132) were randomized: controls (sorbitol/maltitol),
or combinations giving xylitol 3.44 g/day 6.88 g/day , or 10.32
g/day . Groups chewed 3 pellets/4 times/d. Samples were taken at
baseline, 5 wks, and 6 mos, and were cultured on modified Mitis
Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci and on blood agar for total
At 5 wks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque were 10x lower than
baseline in G3 and G4 (P = 0.007/0.003).
There were no differences in saliva. At 6 mos, mutans streptococci in
plaque for G3 and G4 remained 10x lower than baseline (P = 0.007/0.04).
Saliva for G3 and G4 was lower than baseline by 8 to 9x (P =
0.011/0.038). Xylitol at 6.44 g/day and 10.32 g/day reduces
mutans streptococci in plaque at 5 wks, and in plaque and unstimulated
saliva at 6 mos. A plateau effect
is suggested between 6.44 g and 10.32 g xylitol/day.
Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol
Chewing Gum P. Milgrom, K.A. Ly, M.C. Roberts, M. Rothen, G. Mueller,
Yamaguchi, J Dent Res 85(2):177-181, 2006
Recent studies report that subjects who chewed
gum had fewer cavities than non gum chewers. Xylitol in
chewing gum caused the GREATEST REDUCTION in cavities.
The greatest reduction in cavities occurs when gum chewing is
begun at least 1 year prior to the eruption of permanent
teeth. The antimicrobial effect of xylitol on strep mutans.
Children chewing xylitol gum had a greater reduction in the
number of strep mutans than those children who were not gum
chewers. Maximum effect of sugarless gum chewing occurs when
it is chewed 3 time a day directly after meals.
Oral Care Report Vol. 13 No. 2,2003
Use of xylitol chewing gum in daycare centers: a
follow-up study in Savonlinna, Finland.
The use of toothbrushes in daycare centers has been
questioned because of the possibility of infections spreading through
unsupervised brushing. Several field studies have demonstrated a
caries-preventive effect of xylitol chewing gum--a measure that could be
a practical way of taking care of oral hygiene during daycare hours
without brushing. A community trial was conducted in total of 921
children. Oral health status in the xylitol group was a little bit
better than in the control group. The use of xylitol can therefore be
recommended, especially if the personnel do not have the possibility to
supervise the brushing.Acta Odontol Scand.
2003 Dec;61(6):367-70. Kovari H, Pienihakkinen K, Alanen
Remineralization effects of xylitol on
demineralized enamel. We morphologically determined the effects of
xylitol on the remineralization of artificially demineralized enamel.
The samples were demineralized and then immersed in a remineralizing
solution with or without 20% xylitol at 37 degrees C for 2 weeks.
Samples immersed in a xylitol solution demonstrated less mineralization
in the outer 10 microm of the outermost surface layers, but more
mineralization in the middle and deep layerss. The MIP evaluation
indicated that remineralization was more prominent in layers at depths
of 50-60 microm in the xylitol samples than in the non-xylitol
samples. These results indicate that xylitol can induce
remineralization of deeper layers of demineralized enamel by
facilitating Ca2+ movement and accessibility. Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 14960009 [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE] J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2003;52(5):471-6.Miake Y, Saeki Y,
Takahashi M, Yanagisawa T.
Xylitol and dental caries: an overview
Xylitol is a naturally occurring, low-calorie
sugar substitute with anticariogenic properties. Data from recent
studies indicate that xylitol can reduce the occurrence of dental caries
in young children, schoolchildren, and mothers, and in children via
their mothers. Xylitol, a sugar alcohol, is derived mainly from
birch and other hardwood trees. Short-term consumption of xylitol is
associated with decreased Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva and
plaque. Aside from decreasing dental caries, xylitol may also
decrease the transmission of S. mutans from mothers to children.
Commercial xylitol-containing products may be used to help control
rampant decay in primary dentition. Studies of schoolchildren in Belize
and Estonia, along with data from the University of Washington, indicate
that xylitol gum, candy, ice pops, cookies, puddings, etc., in
combination with other dental therapies, are associated with the arrest
of carious lesions. PMID: 14700079 J Calif Dent
Assoc. 2003 Mar;31(3):205-9.Lynch H, Milgrom P.
In vitro testing of xylitol as an
A number of studies involving xylitol chewing gum have
demonstrated that xylitol is both noncariogenic and anticariogenic.
The ability of xylitol to act as an anticariogenic agent most likely is
due to its ability to be transported into caries-causing oral bacteria
and inhibiting fermentation either by depleting the cell of high-energy
phosphate or by poisoning the glycolytic system. In vitro tests were
conducted to determine the concentration of xylitol required to inhibit
the growth of three strains of oral streptococcus (S. mutans, S.
salivarius, and S. sanguis). All three strains were inhibited
significantly at xylitol concentrations of 12.5% and higher; however, only
S. mutans was inhibited significantly at a xylitol concentration of
1.56%. Gen Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug;50(4):340-3. _Sahni PS, Gillespie
MJ, Botto RW, Otsuka
Maintaining Mutans Streptococci Suppression:
With Xylitol Chewing Gum One strategy for treating dental
caries is to suppress oral mutans streptococci, or MS, with
chlorhexidine, or CHX, mouthrinse. Oral MS levels, however, tend to
quickly return to baseline values without further intervention. In
this clinical study, the authors evaluated the effect of xylitol chewing
gum on MS regrowth. Subjects rinsed with 0.12 percent CHX
gluconate mouthrinse twice daily for 14 days.Those in the test
group chewed a commercial xylitol gum three times daily for a
minimum of five minutes each time for three months. The placebo group
subjects used a commercial sorbitol gum, and the control group subjects
did not chew gum. After three months of gum chewing, the test group
subjects had significantly lower salivary than did the placebo or
control group subjects. Conclusions. Xylitol chewing gum
appears to have the ability to prolong the effect of CHX therapy on oral
MS. . [Maintaining Mutans Streptococci Suppression: With
Xylitol Chewing Gum Hi= ldebrandt G.H., Sparks B.S. JADA The Journal of
the American Dental Association, July 2000, vol. 131, no. 7,pp.
How Xylitol–Containing Products Affect Cariogenic
The authors examined the effect of xylitol on levels
of Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. In the first study, 187
children received xylitol containing snacks in school for four weeks.
The children's salivary S. mutans levels remained stable before and
after xylitol exposure. Bacteria from five of these children grew with
10 percent or less xylitol at baseline, while the bacteria from all
seven children grew with 15 percent xylitol after exposure to the
xylitol containing snacks, suggesting that the S. mutans increased in
tolerance to xylitol during exposure. Overall, consumption of
xylitol-containing snacks and candy did not reduce S. mutans
levels. However, bacteria from five children and one adult became
more xylitol tolerant. [How Xylitol–Containing Products
Affect Cariogenic Bacteria Roberts M.C., Riedy C.A., Coldwell S.E.,
Nagahama S., Judge K., Lam M., Kaakko T., Castillo J.L., Milgrom P. JADA
The Journal of the American Dental Association, April 2002, vol. 133,
no. 4,pp. 435-441.]
If you tend to get cavities, chew on this: Gum
that is sweetened with xylitol can help prevent tooth decay.
Study participants who chewed on gum with
xylitol after meals had far fewer cavity-causing bacteria in their mouths five
minutes afterward than people who chewed gum sweetened with sorbitol or people
who didn't chew gum at all. Check the label on your favorite gum to see if it
contains the cavity-fighting ingredient.
Benefit: Flossing and brushing your teeth daily can make your RealAge as much as
6.4 years younger
Chewing gum can
improve your memory! Read more about
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White Gum with Recalent
WHITE has been made with Recaldent, ACC-CPP, a good remineralizer