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                                                        DR. DAN PETERSON

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The life expectancy of people who smoke is decreased by 14 years.

315,432men light up cigarettes every minute!

4,000 chemicals are in one cigarette! These chemicals damage
the DNA in every cell that is exposed to them and hence increase the
risk of advanced cellular destruction and/or cancer

Smoking is a major cause of:


heart disease








bad breath


discoloration of teeth and tongue


hairy tongue


impaired wound healing in the mouth


impaired senses of taste and smell




smokers palate


necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis


chronic gingivitis


periodontal disease

Stains on teeth from smoking

Smokers Less Likely to Visit Dentist Than Nonsmokers

It contributes to the severity of colds and pneumonia
It is a major cause of cancers of:






oral cavity lesions-leukoplakia





It is a contributing cause of the development of the cancers of the bladder,
pancreas, uterus, cervix and kidneys.

Smoking is responsible for:


87% of lung cancer cases


82% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( emphysema and chronic bronchitis)


21% of deaths from heart disease


18% of deaths from stroke.*

For Smokers Only

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News Updates

Treating Tobacco Use very good references and useful information

Best sties to quit Smoking:

Classroom Approach:

One on One Help: can instant message staff 9:00-11:00pm Mon to Fri..

Lots of Support:

New Anti-Smoking Pill

Now there’s an FDA approved tablet shown to help more than 1 in 5 smokers quit.  Varenicline is the first new prescription drug for smoking cessation approved in nearly a decade and only the second stop-smoking drug that is nicotine-free. In 1997, the FDA approved bupropion, an antidepressant sold as Wellbutrin and then rebranded as Zyban.

Varenicline works in two ways, by cutting the pleasure of smoking and reducing the withdrawal symptoms. Pfizer will market the drug as a twice-daily tablet, intended for adults only, as Chantix™. (Source:


New Warning Labels:

Cigarettes cause strokes

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The impact of water pipe smoking is largely the same as that of cigarette smoking, said researchers in the November issue of theJournal of Periodontology. Clinical examinations of 262 subjects, aged 17 to 60 years, at King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The examinations included assessments of oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and probing depth. Subjects reported their smoking behaviors through a questionnaire, and this information was confirmed by an interview. Researchers stratified subjects into water pipe smokers, cigarette smokers, mixed smokers and nonsmokers.

They found that incidence of periodontal diseases was 30 percent inwater pipe smokers, 24 percent in cigarette smokers and 8 percent innonsmokers.Research from this study shows that the relative risk for
periodontal disease increased by 5.0-fold in water pipe smokers and 3.8-fold in cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers,
Even though the smoke is filtered out by water, inhalation of toxic substances is similar to or even greater than that of cigarette smoking. Tobacco used for water pipe smoking contains 2 to 4 percent nicotineversus 1 to 3 percent for cigarettes. Researchers found increased levels of nicotine and cotinine in water pipe smokers' plasma, saliva and urine, supporting their finding that water pipe smoking affects the periodontal tissues in the same way as cigarette smoking does.
J Am Dent Assoc, Vol 137, No 1, 24-25.

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Stop Smoking Facts

Boxing and Oral Health — Perhaps not Mutually Exclusive?

News Releases CDA  June 13, 2005 Your dentist will certainly never recommend it, but according to a study published in the latest edition of the Journal of the Canadian Dental Association (JCDA), participation in sports — even contact sports including boxing and wrestling — may have protective health effects.

The article, entitled "Tobacco Use among Young North American Aboriginal Athletes", found that youths at high-risk for smoking, are less likely to use tobacco when they are involved in organized sports.

Among Aboriginal youth, average reported smoking rates vary from 30- 77%, (higher than the non-Aboriginal Canadian youth average of 21.7%), putting them at increased risk for negative health effects — including oral diseases. Through a mouthguard clinic established at the July 2002 North American Indigenous Games, a group of dentalresearchers was able to learn that participation in sports impacts other health choices.

We found that athletes presenting at the clinic were much less likely to use tobacco products than their peers — and even averaged below the rates of non-aboriginal youths who are less at risk.  These findings suggest that participation in organized sportsmay be an important protective factor against tobacco use.

Of 156 Aboriginal athletes participating in the study, only 22 (14.1%) reported current smoking. And of the few who did smoke, consumption levels were low and most were interested in quitting.

The full text of the above mentioned article is available from the eJCDA Web site:

Tobacco Use among Young North American Aboriginal Athletes[ ]

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Cigarettes cause mouth diseases

Loss of Teeth and Coronary Heart Disease

This study found there was a significant hazard ratio for total mortality, but only for edentulousness. When examined by stepwise regression of the coronary heart disease risk factors,all significance of risk from the three oral parameters was lost, smoking having the largest effect of all risk factors.

Number of remaining teeth, edentulousness, and number of years of edentulism were not independent risk factors for total or coronary heart disease mortality, but they were surrogate markers for the risk from smoking. 

[Ragnarsson E, Eliasson ST, / Gudnason V Loss of Teeth and Coronary Heart Disease International Journal of Prosthodontics  2004;17(4): 441-446.]

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Today's Tip:  Smoking Did you know that smoking affects all parts of the digestive system,and contributes to ulcers and heartburn?  According to the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, smoking can also affect the makeup of stomach acid, making it more harmful.
And - with reflux - that could harm the teeth!

hearts@work Tip of the Week courtesy of your Healthy Heart Society ofBritish Columbia

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Smokers have a higher requirement for vitamin C than nonsmokers.  Vitamin C concentrations in smokers are inversely related to cigarette consumption.  This is most likely due to increased demand as a result of increased oxidative stress.   The current RDA for smokers is 110 mg/day for women and 125 mg/day for men, although it has been proposed smokers require 120 to 180 mg/day to maintain plasma vitamin C concentrations comparable to nonsmokers.  The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 1-13 6/04

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 Cigarette smoke undermines protective properties of saliva 

Once exposed to cigarette smoke, our normally healthy saliva not only loses its beneficial qualities but it turns traitor and actually aids in destroying the cells of the mouth and oral cavity. Cigarette smoke is not only damaging on its own, it can turn the body against itself. Cigarette smoke can destroy the antioxidants found in saliva, leaving behind a mixture of compounds that can accelerate the development of oropharyngeal cancer  [ News Today June 2004]

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Cigarette Smoking and the Periodontal Patient 

Adult smokers are approximately three times as likely as non-smokers to have periodontitis. The association between smoking and attachment loss is even stronger when the definition of periodontitis is restricted to the most severely affected subjects. Smokers have a diminished response to periodontal therapy and show approximately half as much improvement in probing depths and clinical attachment levels following non- surgical and various surgical modalities of therapy. Implant failures in smokers are twice those of non-smokers, with a higher failure rate in the maxillary arch . Tobacco-induced alterations in microbial and host factors contribute to these deleterious effects of smoking on the periodontium. In longitudinal studies, the rate of periodontal disease progression is increased in smokers, but decreases to that of a non-smoker following tobacco cessation. Likewise, recent non- smokers respond to periodontal therapy in a manner similar to patients who have never smoked.  Use the five A's: ask – identify tobacco users; advise – advise them to quit; assess – evaluate the patient's readiness to quit; assist – offer assistance in cessation; and arrange – follow up on cessation efforts. The addition of pharmacotherapy to behavioral therapy, including nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion, can increase cessation rates. The most popular form of nicotine replacement therapy is the patch, and its use has been shown to double cessation rates compared to behavioral therapy alone. Use of bupropion in combination with nicotine replacement therapy may be particularly helpful for heavy smokers or smokers who have experienced multiple failed attempts at cessation. [J Periodontol 2004;75:196-209.]Georgia K. Johnson and Margaret Hill [J Periodontology Feb 2004] 

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New Websites

Tobacco Control Resource Center-Tobacco FactFile presents reliable information on the true consequences of tobacco use

Tobacco Quitline Information

Call 1-866-632-7848 for information, support and follow-up calls as often as you need, anytime, day or night.  Certified counselors will develop a personalized "Quit Plan" to help you by setting specific goals and target dates for quitting and strategies for starving off cravings.  Follow up calls are offered on a regular schedule to provide ongoing support, advice and encouragement.  There is no limit to the number of follow up sessions or calls for support.  All information is confidential.

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Study shows smokers should quit before dental procedures 

Smokers may want to quit using tobacco before undergoing oral surgery in order to encourage a prompt recovery.  Researchers investigated the relationship between tobacco smoking and the inflammatory response in smokers who consumed 10 to 20 cigarettes a day.   The researchers found that the body's defense mechanism was weakened in smokers, while the defense mechanism in nonsmokers promoted a more favorable healing response. Smoking interferes with the treatment response, noting that the findings also might explain the clinical evidence of inferior treatment outcomes in smokers.  October 2003 issue of the Journal of Periodontology.

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Reducing tobacco use doesn't compare to quitting in risk reduction

 Heavy smokers hoping to stave off respiratory illness or death by cutting down on the number of cigarettes they smoke may want to rethink their choice and quit altogether, according to new study findings from Denmark. Significantly reducing the number of cigarettes smoked did not appear to have any long-term benefit in terms of death risk compared to not cutting down at all, according to the report published in the December issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology. In the current study, Dr. Nina S. Godtfredsen of Copenhagen University Hospital and colleagues assessed the cause of death for nearly 20,000 people over a 15-year period. The investigators compared heavy smokers (15 or more cigarettes a day) who reduced the number of cigarettes they smoked by at least half during the study but didn't quit, with smokers who did quit, as well as people who continued to be heavy smokers. The researchers also looked at consistent light smokers, who smoked 14 cigarettes or less daily. Heavy smokers who cut their cigarette intake by half saw no reduction in deaths from any cause during the study period. Quitters, on the other hand, had a 35 percent lower risk of death from all causes than those who continued to smoke heavily, while light smokers' death risk was 25 percent lower. And quitters cut their risk of death from tobacco-related cancer by 64 percent, while there was no significant difference in mortality from such cancers for those who reduced their tobacco intake. The researchers also found no difference in respiratory disease or mortality from cardiovascular disease between people who reduced their smoking and those who continued to smoke heavily. The authors note that the study is the first, to their knowledge, to investigate from a prospective point of view the question of whether reducing cigarette smoking can cut mortality risk. SOURCE: American Journal Epidemiology 2002;156:994-1001.

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Additive-free cigarettes no safer for smokers: 

 Additive-free cigarettes such as the "American Spirit" brand are no safer to smoke than conventional filtered cigarettes, researchers  from the University of Maryland have found. Noting that both the American Spirit cigarettes and bidis contain carcinogenic compounds, the investigators point out that such non-conventional cigarettes pose a substantial health risk to smokers. And they emphasize that adolescents appear to be particularly vulnerable to becoming dependant on such brands. Sanders from the American Spirit company states "American Spirit cigarettes are not marketed as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes but rather as a tastier option." We make no representation — expressed or implied — that these cigarettes are any less hazardous than any other cigarettes." A.D.A. Dec. 2002

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Investigators at the State University of New York at Buffalo undertook a study to determine the effectiveness of a "smoking deterrent" mouthwash on altering the taste in people's mouths after smoking. The mouthwash causes a cigarette to become distasteful, while the taste of food and drink is unaffected. The subjects evaluated had smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day for more than five years.  The majority of the subjects in the test group noticed a foul taste when they smoked after using the mouthwash. Results showed that the test mouthwash is safe to oral tissues and teeth, has some plaque-, gingivitis-, and odor-reducing properties, and produces an unpleasant taste in the mouth only when the user is smoking. * * * * * This is a summary of an abstract entitled "Clinical Evaluation of a Smoking Deterrent Mouthwash", by K.L. Kirkwood, S.G. Ciancio, and M.L. Mather, of the State University of New York at Buffalo, American Association for Dental Research

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The Role of Cigarette Smoking in the Association Between Periodontal Disease and Coronary Heart Disease 

Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for both coronary heart disease and periodontal disease. The goal of this study was to better understand the role of smoking in the relationship between periodontal disease and heart attack history.  These results suggest that cigarette smoking is a necessary cofactor in the relationship between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease, and the increase in risk appears to be age dependent.Jeffrey J. Hyman, Deborah M. Winn, and Britt C. Reid

 J Periodontol 2002;73(9):988-994.

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Smoking Can Lead To Tooth Loss Despite Good Brushing And Flossing

Smoking is so harmful to gums that even smokers with good oral-hygiene habits are more likely to develop gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss.

Researchers looked at the conditions of lower molars (back teeth) in 60 smokers and 60 people who had never smoked. The people in the study ranged in age from 31 to 60 years, and all had good oral-hygiene habits.

Smokers had more signs of periodontal disease, including receding gums, pockets between the teeth and gums, loss of gum attachment to the teeth, and loose teeth. Seventy-three percent of smokers, but only 20 percent of nonsmokers, showed a loss of gum attachment down to where the tooth splits into more than one root.

The researchers conclude that smoking is a major risk factor for periodontal problems, even in people with good dental care habits.

July issue of the Journal of Periodontology; Nancy Volkers InteliHealth News Service

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 Smoke Gets in Your Hair

A new study about secondhand tobacco smoke by Wael Al-Delaimy,  at Harvard School of Public Health, and his colleagues analyzed how much environmental smoke people absorb by measuring nicotine levels in the hair of 114 bar and restaurant workers in New Zealand. Nicotine is a useful tracer of exposure because it gets incorporated into hair after it is absorbed through the lungs. Nonsmokers working in places that allowed unrestricted smoking exhibited nicotine levels nearly as high as those who were moderate smokers. In restaurants and bars with no-smoking zones, nicotine levels were lower but still comparable to the effect of smoking two cigarettes a day. His data suggest that secondhand exposure in a smoky workplace could pose the same risks as moderate smoking—respiratory problems, lung cancer, and heart disease.
Solana Pyne, Jan 2002

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Promising Tests on World's First Nicotine Vaccine

Xenova Group is developing clinical trials on the world's first nicotine addition vaccine. The vaccine would be injected into the muscle to prevent the addictive cycle of cigarette smoking by stopping nicotine from entering the brain.

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Countdown to Quitting:




February 06, 2008

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