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6. Osteoporosis -Periodontal disease caused a 4x higher frequency
of height loss in the jaw.
7. Spontaneous Preterm Birth- Preterm, low birth weight babies refers to infants who
are born prior to 37 week s of pregnancy and weigh less than 5.5 pounds
at birth. These births account for 60% of babies who die in infancy.
Gums infected with periodontal disease are toxic
reservoirs of disease causing bacteria. The toxins produced by
the bacteria attack the gums, ligaments, and bone surrounding the
teeth to produce infected pockets that are similar to large infected
wounds in your mouth. The infected pockets provide access
the your bloodstream allowing bacteria to travel throughout your
Your body reacts to the infections in your gums by
producing prostaglandins, a natural fatty acid that's involved with
inflammation control an smooth muscle (uterine) contraction. During your
pregnancy the level of prostaglandins gradually increases, peaking when
you go into labor. One theory is that, if extra prostaglandins are
produced as a reaction to the bacterial infection in your gums, your
body may interpret it as a signal to go into labor and your baby can be
born to early or too small. Also fusobacterium nucleatum, bacteria
that originate in the gum tissue around teeth, has been found in the
Thus, gum disease can increase your risk for
preterm birth and low birth
rate babies by as much as 18%. Women with periodontal disease are 3-5 times greater risk of
a preterm birth than those who have no gum disease. Also the hormone surges in pregnancy can cause
(inflamed benign growths in the gum tissue).
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8.Heart Disease-Heart disease is the leading cause of death in both men
and women. Coronary artery
disease occurs when the arteries of the heart become narrowed or
blocked by plaque-a deposit of fatty material in the lining of blood
One potential risk factor for heart disease is
advanced gum disease.
Thus periodontal disease increases severity and risk of heart
disease and stroke. Periodontal bacteria (C-reactive protein CPR) gains entry into the
systemic circulation with bactermia causing changes in blood vessel walls
and exacerbated atherosclerotic plaque. Flossing matters!: People
who have both gum disease and a high body mass index, were more likely to
have increased C-reactive protein-a serum in blood that is a marker for
heart disease. The CRP has been shown to be a more predictive
marker for heart attack than low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels.
Also P gingivalis produces proteases and other pathogens enter the
bloodstream thru the disease gum tissue pockets.
National Health & Nutrition Examination Archives
of Internal Medicine 12/03
a potentially fatal disease in which the inner lining of the heart
you know that the connection between gum disease and heart attacks is
higher than the connection between high cholesterol and heart attacks?
There is LOTS of research being done
on CV and PD . Both from the bacterial state AND the immunological
state that underlies both diseases. So far PD and CV are not causal
but are related by cytokine and
interleukin reactions both forming collagenase. Altering those
reactions (lessening the immune response) has led to less of both
diseases. It appears that the simple elimination of oral
bacteria is not enough since it cant' be done effectively enough BUT
altering the immune reactions in conjunction with chronic debridement
and bacterial lessening and oxidizing of the antigenic chemistry that
causes it to begin with DOES help
Dr Dave IDF 1/06
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Stroke-A stroke or "brain attack" is a serious condition caused
by a sudden loss of oxygenated blood to an area of the brain, due to a
clot or rupture in a blood vessel. Fatty deposits
lodged in carotid arteries of stroke sufferers shows that 70% contain
bacteria - and 40% of that bacteria comes from the mouth.
Oral signs of a stroke include slurred speech
difficulty swallowing, weak palate, and a reduced gag reflex.
Risk for stroke is 2.8 times greater for
individual with gum disease than those
without periodontal disease.
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10. Pulmonary Infection and Oral Diseases
If you have gum disease you may be inhaling harmful
bacteria from the infection in your gums into your lungs which can
pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Individuals with COPD have shown that gum disease particularly bone
loss, is a risk factor for COPD. An increase in dental
plaque may place these individuals a greater risk for respiratory
infections. 12 studies provide direct evidence of the association
between pulmonary infection and oral diseases. This association occurs
in people with severe compromised health,
in frail elderly people and
in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Improving oral hygiene might
reduce the risk of pneumonia among people at risk. Thus, it is important
for people at risk to have necessary regular recall
appointment and the introduction of specific oral
hygiene courses for caregiver in long
term care institutions.**
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For a detailed report on
Periodontal Risk Factors look here: Periodontal
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Periodontitis and Renal
Periodontitis, a chronic bacterial infection of the
oral cavity, is a novel risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular
disease (CVD). Given the numerous shared risk factors for CVD and
chronic kidney disease (CKD), we hypothesized that periodontitis also is
associated with renal insufficiency in the Dental Atherosclerosis
Risk in Communities study.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,537 middle-aged black
and white men and women. Periodontitis was determined by using an
independent clinically derived definition and categorized as
initial, and severe. Renal insufficiency is defined as glomerular
filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: A
total of 2,276 individuals had initial periodontitis, and 947
individuals had severe periodontal disease. One hundred ten individuals
(2%) had a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with
healthy/gingivitis, initial and
severe periodontal disease were associated with a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73
m2 (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 3.24) forinitial
periodontal disease and an odds ratio of 2.14 for severe disease
(95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 3.85) after adjustment for important
risk factors for CVD and CKD. S
Conclusion: This is the first study to show an association of
periodontal disease with prevalent renal insufficiency. A
prospective study is necessary to determine the exact nature of the
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Possible Alzheimer's signpost Gum inflammation may be
linked to increased risk of the brain
disorder. By Kevin W. McCullough, Times Staff Writer 6/05.Missing teeth and gum disease at an early age may be linked to an
increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, researchers have found,
bolstering the increasingly strong connection between early exposure to
chronic inflammation and the degenerative brain disorder.
The study, among the findings presented last week at the first
Alzheimer's Assn. International Conference on Prevention of Dementia,
examined lifestyle factors of more than 100 pairs of identical twins.
All of the pairs included one twin who had developed dementia and one
who hadn't. Because identical twins are genetically indistinguishable,
the study involved only risk factors that could be modified to
help protect against dementia.
Twins who had severe periodontal disease before they were 35 years old
had a fivefold increase in risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the
researchers found. Periodontal disease may be a marker for chronic
exposure todisease that provokes an inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation can
damage tissue, including the brain, which may contribute to the
development of the disease.
I would think of the periodontal disease as a signpost, not a cause.
Periodontal disease is also linked to general health,
and even the inflammatory link to Alzheimer's may involve several
factors. This finding reinforces a long-standing appreciation . that
indicated inflammation in the brain was an essential part of the disease
April 2005 • Volume 45 • Number 4 Pathogenesis
and Treatment of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Periodontal disease is
associated with renal insufficiency in the Atherosclerosis Risk In
Communities (ARIC) study Abhijit V. Kshirsagar, MD, MPH Kevin L. Moss
John R. Elter, DMD, PhD James D. Beck, PhD Steve Offenbacher, DDS, PhD
Ronald J. Falk, MD
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Periodontal Disease Linked to
Obesity. A recent study published as a supplement to the Journal of
Periodontology found that obesity, independent of any factors such as
age, race, gender, or ethnicity, is a significant predictor of
periodontal disease. Researchers at the University at Buffalo
analyzed the national sample and determined that insulin resistance
mediates the relationship between the two conditions.
The data showed that the severity of periodontal attachment loss
increased proportionally as insulin resistance increased. Also, the
number of teeth lost increased with greater insulin resistance.
Compared to the lowest insulin resistance group, people with the highest
insulin resistance lost an average of 1.1 more teeth.
People who have higher body mass index produce cytokines (hormone-like
proteins), that lead to systemic
inflammation and insulin resistance. We propose that chronic stimulation
and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines associated with periodontal
infection also occurs, contributing to insulin resistance, which may
further predispose to diabetes mellitus.
The team of researchers showed that people with diabetes who suffer from
periodontal disease may be prone to greater mortality from diabetic
complications, which include kidney complications and cardiovascular
disease, than diabetics who do not.(1) cited News
15. Periodontal Disease
Linked with Pancreatic Cancer
A new study has found that periodontal disease may be
associated with in increased risk of cancer of the pancreas.
Published in the Journal of the National Cancer
Institute, the study was conducted by researchers at the Harvard
School of Public Health (HSPH) and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
The study provides the first strong evidence that periodontal
disease may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. This finding
is of significance as it may provide some new insights into the
mechanism of this highly fatal disease,' said lead author
Dominique Michaud from HSPH.
Periodontal disease is caused by bacterial infection and
inflammation of the gums that over time causes loss of bone that
supports the teeth; tooth loss is a consequence of severe
The results of this study showed that, after adjusting for age,
smoking, diabetes, body mass index and a number of other
factors, men with periodontal disease had a 63 percent higher
risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to those reporting
no periodontal disease. Michaud said, `Most convincing was
our finding that never-smokers had a two-fold increase in risk
of pancreatic cancer. Individuals with periodontal disease have
elevated serum biomarkers of systemic inflammation, such as
C-reactive protein, and these may somehow contribute to the
promotion of cancer cells.'
Another explanation, according to Michaud, is that
periodontal disease could lead to increased pancreatic
carcinogenesis because individuals with periodontal disease have
higher levels of oral bacteria and higher levels of
nitrosamines, which are carcinogens, in their oral cavity.
Prior studies have shown that nitrosamines and gastric acidity
may play a role in pancreatic cancer.However, Michaud notes that
the underlying mechanisms for this association are speculative
at this point.
www.smile-on.com Wednesday 17th January 2007
* Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, School of
Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC*
Division of Dental Ecology, School of Dentistry, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA * The Atherosclerosis Risk
in Communities study is carried out as a collaborative study supported
by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
contracts no. N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019,
N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55021, and N01-HC-55022. In addition, this study is
supported by National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research
grant no. DE13019 and by the General Clinical Research Center grant no.
RR00046. Dr. Kshirsagar’s efforts were supported by a grant from Renal
Research Institute. * ⁎Address reprint requests to Abhijit V. Kshirsagar,
MD, MPH, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, CB 7155 348 MacNider
Hill, NC 27599-7155. * Email address:
firstname.lastname@example.org (Abhijit V. Kshirsagar)
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Measures of Chronic Periodontitis and Carotid Artery Plaque
Chronic periodontitis (CP) is associated with
stroke and subclinical atherosclerosis, but clinical measurement of
CP can be time consuming and invasive. The purpose of this study was to
determine whether radiographically assessed CP is associated with
nonstenotic carotid artery plaque as an ultrasound measure of
subclinical atherosclerosis. Panoramic oral radiographs were obtained
from 203 stroke-
free subjects ages 54 to 94 during the baseline examination
Severe periodontal bone loss is associated independently with carotid
atherosclerosis. Panoramic oral radiographs may thus provide an
efficient means to assess CP in studies of atherosclerosis risk.
Steven P. Engebretson, et al.,Radiographic Measures of
ChronicPeriodontitis and Carotid Artery Plaque Stroke. 2005;36:561
Managing Risk Factors in Successful Nonsurgical Treatment
of Periodontal Disease, Dr. Gottehrerr, Dentistry Today, January 2003 pg
** Link Between Pulmonary Infection and Oral Diseases, NDA
pg 10, February 2003.
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